Archive for the ‘ORIGINAL’ Category

Crawler Transporter

A crawler-transporter carrying Discovery travels the ramp to Launch Pad 39B. The vehicle's back end can be raised, keeping the Shuttle and the MLP level.

A crawler-transporter carrying Discovery travels the ramp to Launch Pad 39B. The vehicle’s back end can be raised, keeping the Shuttle and the MLP level.

The crawler-transporters are a pair of tracked vehicles used to transport spacecraft from NASA’s Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) along the Crawlerway to Launch Complex 39. They were originally used to transport the Saturn IB and Saturn V rockets during the Apollo, Skylab and Apollo–Soyuz programs. They are currently used to transport the Space Shuttle. It is planned for them to carry the upcoming Ares I and Ares V rockets for the Constellation program as well. The crawler-transporters carry vehicles on the Mobile Launcher Platform, and after each launch return to the pad to take the platform back to the VAB.

Crawler-transporter #2 ("Franz") in a December 2004 road test after track shoe replacement.

Crawler-transporter #2 (“Franz”) in a December 2004 road test after track shoe replacement.

The two crawler-transporters were designed by Bucyrus International and built by Marion Power Shovel using components designed and built by Rockwell International at a cost of US$14 million each. When they were built, they were the largest tracked vehicles in the world. The German Bagger 288 excavator is now the largest tracked vehicle in the world, although the crawler-transporter is the largest self-powered one.

The crawler-transporter carrying the Ares I-X on its test flightllout_on_mole

The crawler-transporter carrying the Ares I-X on its test flightllout_on_mole

The crawler-transporter has a mass of 2,721 tonnes – 3,000 short tons (2,700,000 kg; 6,000,000 lb) – and has eight tracks, two on each corner. Each track has 57 shoes, and each shoe weighs 1,984 pounds (900 kg). The vehicle measures 131 feet (40 m) by 114 feet (35 m). The height from ground level to the platform is adjustable from 20 ft (6.1 m) to 26 ft (7.9 m), and each side can be raised and lowered independently of the other. The crawler uses a laser guidance system and a leveling system to keep the Mobile Launcher Platform level within 10 minutes of arc, while moving up the 5% grade to the launch site. A separate laser docking system provides pinpoint accuracy when the crawler-transporter and Mobile Launch Platform are positioned in the VAB or at the launch pad.

The crawler has 16 traction motors, powered by four 1,341 horsepower (1,000 kW) generators, in turn driven by two 2,750 horsepower (2,050 kW) Alco diesel engines. Two 1,006 horsepower (750 kW) generators, driven by two 1,065 horsepower (794 kW) engines, are used for jacking, steering, lighting, and ventilating. Two 201 horsepower (150 kW) generators are also available to power the Mobile Launcher Platform. The crawler’s tanks hold 5,000 US gallons (19,000 l; 4,200 imp gal) of diesel fuel, and it burns 150 gal/mi (350 L/km).

The crawler is controlled from two control cabs located at either end of the vehicle, and travels along the 3.5 miles (5.6 km) Crawlerway at a maximum speed of 1 mile per hour (1.6 km/h) loaded, or 2 miles per hour (3.2 km/h) unloaded. The average trip time from the VAB along the Crawlerway to Launch Complex 39 is about five hours. Each crawlerway is 7 ft (2 m) deep and covered with Alabama and Tennessee river rock for its low friction properties to reduce the possibility of sparks. In 2000, NASA unearthed and restored an Apollo-era segment of the crawlerway to provide access to a high-bay building in order to provide protection from a hurricane.

Kennedy Space Center has been using the same two crawlers since their initial delivery in 1965. In their lifetime, they have traveled more than 2,500 miles (4,000 km). NASA will continue to use crawlers when the Space Shuttle is retired in 2010 and the Ares I and Ares V take its place. Due to their age and need to support the heavier Ares V (with its launch umbilical tower), NASA will modify the crawler’s engines in order to have the ability to carry the heavier loads envisioned for the Ares V for both its lunar and, later, planetary roles.

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Thorium and Uranium elements

High purity Thorium (Th232) and Uranium (U238) elements. With my Inspector Alert, I measure, at the surface of the glasses (β + γ):
Thorium Powder 5 gr. Ampoule ≅ 49.22 μSv/h
Thorium 0,05 gr. Ampoule ≅ 3.20 μSv/h
Uranium Powder 0,5 gr. In Ampoule ≅ 40.50 μSv/h
Uranium 1,8 gr. Ampoule ≅ 19.84 μSv/h
Trinitite samples

Early in the morning on July 16, 1945, the first atomic bomb blast was detonated at the Trinity Site. The actual explosion produced a blast equivalent to eighteen thousand tons of TNT. The resulting fireball that scorched the desert formed a depressed crater 800 yards in diameter, glazed with a light olive green, glass-like substance where the sand had melted and solidified again. The following excerpt is from Time Magazine, Sept. 17, 1945: “Seen from the air, the crater itself seems (looks like) a lake of green Jade shaped like a splashy star, and set in a sere disc of burnt vegetation half a mile wide. From close up the lake is a glistening encrustation of blue-green glass 2,400 feet in diameter, formed when the molten soil solidified in air.” Chemical tests have confirmed that it is nearly pure melted silica with traces of Olivine, Feldspar, and other minerals which comprise the desert sand. The crater was buried for security reasons not long after the explosion and, as a result, Trinitite has remained relatively difficult to obtain.
More Trinitite samples

Autunite Crystals

Daybreak Mine, Spokane, Washington, USA
Autunite Fluorescent Natural Mineral Sample, with no substrate. The crystalline form of Autunite is Fluorescent under Long Wave and Short Wave Ultra Violet Light. Some of the Brightest Fluorescence seen in Nature.
With my Inspector Alert, I measure, at the surface of the bottle (β+γ) ≅ 960.0 μSv/h
Uraninite / Pitchblende

Schwartzwalder Mine, Jefferson County, Colorado, USA
Pitchblende/Uraninite Uranium Oxide Mineral Ore. The density of this sample is very high, confirming it’s purity.
With my Inspector Alert, I measure, at the surface of the bottle (β+γ) ≅ 438.6 μSv/h
Uraninite / Pitchblende

Markey Mine – San Juan County Utah, USA
Pitchblende/Uraninite Uranium Oxide Mineral Ore.
With my Inspector Alert, I measure, at 3 cm from the surface of the mineral (α+β+γ) ≅ 1000.0 μSv/h

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The DRSB-88 radiation detector gives audible and visible indications of elevated levels of radioactivity (photon rays and hard beta-rays). You can use it to check the background radiation in a house or workplace and check for contaminated products or food. The device itself does not emit radiation and does not have any harmful effect on the user or environment. You can take it in a travel. This dosimeter contain a Geiger Counter. The minimal radio-activity (natural, background) which dosimeter react is 0.3 microroentgen or 0.003 microsievert. The maximal radio-activity (dangerous), which dosimeter distinguish is 60 microroentgen or 0.6 microsievert. This dosimeter has been made at Russian factory which makes products for Russian army.


Improved Quality! The RKSB-104, measures equivalent dose rates for gamma radiation, surface flux beta radiation, an isotope mode for Cs137 with a limiting alarm mode as well. A constant LED readout with timed measurement, easy to use, comes with instruction in English. A Russian Joint Venture since 10 years. This is a fairly sophisticated instrument, far better than the old models that were widely distributed, and it is comparable to a 300 EURO unit manufactured elsewhere. For ß + y radiation, can measure each individually, different scales. Acoustic indication, digital display. Runs on 9-V battery.

The radiation dosimeter is a portable device. Dosimeter gives visible indications of elevated levels of radioactivity (gamma and beta rays). The dosimeter can be used for evaluation of the radiation level afield, indoors and for evaluation of contamination level of materials and products. The device estimates radiation environment in magnitude of ambient equivalent power of gamma radiation dose taking into account pollution of objects by bets sources. The dosimeter measures a level of radiation in microsieverts/hour (0.1 to 9.99 µSv/h).

This smallest dosimeter has been made in Russia. This portable device is designed for use as a keychain. Dosimeter gives audible and visible indications of elevated levels of radioactivity (gamma and beta rays). The dosimeter can be used for evaluation of the radiation level afield, indoors and for evaluation of contamination level of materials and products. This dosimeter contains a Geiger Counter. Charger for 220 V and batteries are included in set. 2 elements V625U or LR9 (1.5V) can be used if you can not use 220 V. Range of exposure dose rate indications, 10 to 3000 microroentgen/hour.
Gamma-Scout with ticker and alarm

My number 1 Geiger Counter! Gamma-Scout® Geiger Counter / Radiation Detector Named “BEST BUY” by WIRED Magazine ) This is a state-of-the-art Geiger Counter that’s used by law enforcement, security and emergency response professionals across the country, a “best of class”, field tested detector that’s designed for today’s new threat environment. Gamma-Scout® is the latest development in handheld general purpose Geiger Counters. Designed around an accurate and reliable LND detector, Gamma-Scout® is light, compact, with a unique ergonomic design that fits comfortably in hand or pocket. With Gamma-Scout® you’re on guard “24/7″ with our ultra long life 10-year (that’s right, 10 years!!) V-Max battery. Gamma-Scout® is always on, checking and recording ambient radiation levels of all three radiation types, alpha, beta & gamma, even giving you a reading of the previous 24 hour average. And, it includes our newest improvement, a user-programmable Audio Threshold Alarm and Pulse Ticker. Its bright orange color and shock resistant Novodur® housing make it ideal for use both in and outside the home or office. An extra large digital display shows measured radiation in mrems/hr (millirems/hour) or SI metric units (microSieverts/hour), accumulated Pulse Counts over time (sec/min/hr), and Pulse Rate in pulses/sec. The display even has an easy-to-use exposure chart to tell you how much danger you’re in right now! The multi-function 9-button Keypad has options for data display, output and collection, including both numerical and logarithmic exposure time bar graph formats, battery level, even date/time. One press of the button, one look at the display, and you’ll know instantly if there’s a problem Besides the risk of hostile terrorist attack or a distant thermonuclear exchange, we all continue to risk exposure from recycled/salvaged radioactive metals, unannounced nuclear plant venting (far more common than you think), and sloppy radioactive waste disposal. Even airline travel nowadays exposes you to excess atmospheric radiation, as much as 3 times normal levels. (Airline pilots are some of our best ustomers.) Gamma-Scouts are used by police and fire departments across the country. The U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Navy, U.S. Capitol Police, numerous hospitals and universities, individuals and security organizations from around the world have chosen Gamma-Scout® over all our competitors. You wouldn’t think twice about buying a smoke alarm for your house, would you? So why is protection from deadly radioactivity any different? Now more than ever, you need to guard against unseen and unexpected radiation, whatever the source. Gamma-Scout® is reliable, convenient – your total personal radiation risk solution. Its advanced engineering, patented, feature-packed design, and affordable price, make Gamma Scout® the ultimate price/performance value. For full technical details, please consult our retail sales site at The current retail price is $449. Each Gamma-Scout® comes complete with User Guide, USB Cable, Download Software, and Black Leather Case.
The Inspector Alert

The Inspector Alert measures alfa, beta, gamma and xray radiation using a 2-inch pancake GM detector with high sensitivity to common beta and alpha sources. The easy-to-read digital display shows readings in your choice of mR/hr or µSv/hr, CPM, or CPS. The Total/Timer feature allows timed readings from one minute to 24 hours for precise measurement of low-level contamination. An audible alert sounds when the radiation reaches a user-adjustable level.
Detector: Halogen-quenched Geiger-Mueller tube. Effective diameter 1.75″ (45 mm). Mica window density 1.5-2.0 mg/cm².
Display: 4-digit liquid crystal display with mode indicators
Operating Range:
mR/hr: .001 to 100.0
CPM: 0 to 350,000
Total: 1 to 9,999,000 counts
µSv/hr: .01 to 1,000
CPS: 0 to 5,000
Gamma Sensitivity: 3500 CPM/mR/hr referenced to Cs-137
Smallest detectable level for I-125 is .02 µCi at contact
Efficiency: For 4 pi geometry at contact
C-14 (49 keV avg. 156 keV max.): 5.3%
Bi-210 (390 keV avg. 1.2 MeV max.): 32%
Sr-90 (546 keV and 2.3 MeV): 38%
P-32 (693 keV avg. 1.7 MeV max.): 33%
Am-241 (5.5 MeV): 18%
Averaging Periods: Display updates every 3 seconds, showing the average for the past 30-second time period at normal levels. The averaging period decreases as the radiation level increases. User can select fast 3-second averaging period
Timer: Can set 1-10 minute sampling periods in one-minute increments, 10-50 minute sampling periods in 10-minute increments, and 1-24 hour sampling periods in 1-hour increments
Accuracy: ± 15% up to 50 mR/hr; ± 20% up to 100 mR/hr
Anti-Saturation: Readout holds at full scale in fields up to 100 times the maximum reading
Temperature Range: -20º to +50º C , -4º to +122º F
Power: One 9-volt alkaline battery; battery life is average 2160 hours at normal background, average 625 hours at 1 mR/hr with beeper off
Size: 150 x 80 x 30 mm (5.9″ x 3.2″ x 1.2″)
Weight: 323 grams (11.4 oz) including battery
I/O Ports: Dual miniature jack for CMOS or TTL devices, sending counts to computer or data logger. Submini jack for electronic calibration.
Count Light: Red LED flashes with each radiation event
Audio: Beeper beeps with each radiation event; can be muted Radiation Alarm and Geiger Counter

This is a pocket size Radiation Alarm and Geiger Counter. It has two operating modes: Alarm Mode and Geiger Counter Mode: In Alarm Mode it sits quietly on a tabletop or in a drawer and does nothing (like a smoke detector) until radiation levels become dangerous in or near your home. If there is a radiation increase, as from a dirty bomb or a nuclear bomb, a beeping alarm will sound. This device can save your life if radiation is a problem near you. The internal sensor is directional and can pinpoint radioactive sources. If there was a radiation release near you, you would know where it would be safe to stand, or if radioactive dust had settled on your shoes or shirt, or on your car, etc. Unlike most radiation alarms, this device reacts instantly to radiation level changes (other devices require minutes or longer and make it difficult to pinpoint radioactive sources). In Geiger Counter Mode the internal speaker produces “ticks” just like a classic Geiger Counter. The unit is easily sensitive enough to measure background radiation and can measure radioactive sources such as active rocks, watch dials, radioactive marbles and pottery, and radioactive smoke alarm elements. Walk it around your back yard and see if anything is radioactive. The unit interfaces to any PC computer to become an accurate laboratory-grade measuring device. A MSDOS software program is included that lets you accurately plot radiation levels in a bargraph form on your computer screen. The software program lets you set various sensitivity levels and time durations for plotting.
K0FF LENi OMEGA PRO Geiger Counter and GEO-210 pancake probe

LENi OMEGA PRO Geiger Counter, by George Dowell (ham call K0FF), with BNC connector, ALL POSSIBLE OPTIONS, manual, silicon diode modification, Zener Diode modification, battery compartment upgrades (uses only 2 flashlight batteries), Teflon wiring, updated and improved metering and biasing circuits. All schematics, manuals, etc. The GEO-210 is made from a fresh, brand new, first quality pancake probe, same as used in the Ludlum 44-9’s, placed in a rugged, padded aluminum casting with a protective screen over the window.
“Technical Associates PUG-1 Radiation Detector and Side Wall Geiger Muller Detector Head”

Thanks to my dear friend Dr. Richard Westfall, from Denver, USA, I now am the owner of this equipment.
This Technical Associates Side Wall Radiation Detector has Excellent Dynamic Range. This PUG can read up to an upper limit of 500KCPM.

Ebereline ESP-1

Eberline Model ESP-1 Smart Portable ratemeter scaler (not working)
Ecotest dosimeter-radiometer MKS-05 ‘TERRA-P’

MKS-05 “TERRA-P”- multifunctional radiometer-dosimeter. It is first pocket device for measurement of radiation for minor price. MKS-05 “TERRA-P” is fully functional radiation-metric device. It is used in army, in special by government organisations.
Three independent measuring channels with alternate indication of data on the single liquid crystal display.
Built-in gamma, beta sensitive Geiger-Muller counter.
Automatic setting of measurement intervals and ranges.
Audio signalling of each detected gamma-quantum and beta-particle.
Programming of audio alarm threshold level relative to gamma radiation dose rate.
Digital display.
Two AAA size batteries.
Four-level indication of power supply discharge.
Shock resistant frame.
Small weight and dimension parameters.
Plessey PDRM 82 Radiation Geiger Counter Meter

Here we have a new, Plessey radiation meter, supplied in white cardboard box of issue. These were standard issue to all Royal Observer Corps members, and also troops involved in detecting the presence of nuclear fall-out and bomb-blast. They were also supplied to Civil Defence organisations in the UK. Comes complete with shoulder strap and neck lanyard, along with full instructions. These meters use a small radiation source of Caesium 137 with an intensity of 13 becquerels. This source has a half-life of 30 years, decaying to Barium, so you can see that this item now has close to half its original source left. For this reason, the item cannot be guaranteed to work accurately, even though it is new and unused. Nice compact item, the perfect addition to any cold war memorabilia collection. Photo by Onno Pietersen.
RadTec K8 Miniature Monitoring and Alarming Ratemeter

RadTec is the smallest discreet personal alarming ratemeter for detecting radiation and radioactive materials nearby. All units are tested using an NIST (National Institute of Science and Technology) traceable radiation source. Personal radiation indicator ideal for the typical citizen average consumer and first responders, airport checkpoint guards and baggage handlers, pilots and flight attendants, police and firefighter, ambulance/EMT, coast guard, border patrols, military, hospital workers, package and courier services, custom and cargo inspectors. High Performance capable of detecting very small amounts of radioactive materials.
Green LED will issue a blinking luminescence, indicating clear area.
Yellow indicator for battery level
Red signal indicates excess level of radiation. Red LED will issue a blinking luminescence and/or issue a audible sound according to levels of exposure.

The PM1603A/PM1603B dosimeters are the only dosimeters in the world designed for automatic control of radiation situation and dose accounting. They are designed for measuring the ambient dose equivalent (DE) H*(10) and ambient dose equivalent rate (DER) H*(10) of gamma radiation within the background values up to 5-10Sv/h in a wide energy range. The dosimeters have two alarm thresholds and in case the preset values of dose and dose rate are exceeded the dosimeter immediately alerts the user of a danger to be irradiated. In cases when the radiation intensity exceeds the upper limit of the dose rate measurement, the LCD of the dosimeter shows the warning sign “OL” followed by the interrupted audible signal. The dosimeter is capable to store up to 1000 histories of dose rate measurements, accumulated dose values and its own factory number in its non-volatile memory. These data can be transmitted from the dosimeter to a PC through the standard communication devices IRDA type for further procession and analysis and for presentation of this information as correspondent data bases or as graphs. Shockproof hermetic case protects the electronics of the dosimeter from mechanical impacts. The dosimeter is ideally suited in extreme climates and harsh environments, it meets the requirements of drop tests which are 0.7m height to a concrete surface. The electroluminescent backlight of the LCD makes it possible to use the dosimeter in the dark. The efficient power supply enables the user to measure the accumulated dose up to 10Sv/h using one battery which discharge is automatically controlled.
FAG-SV500 Geiger counter/Dosimeter/Radiation Detector

Manufactured by Frieseke & Hoepfner (Erlangen, Germany) since the 1980´s, the SV500 was the “gold-standard” in the german army for more than 2 decades. Since it´s successor – the IM7001, becomes to be produced, ever more SV500´s sporadically find their way out of the army-barracks and inspire a wide range of users: geologists, radiation protection specialists or simply the hobby scientist, who searches a simple-to-use, professional dose rate meter.
The instrument comes in nice, splash-water protecting leather bag (which has practical holding-eyes for fastening a shoulder-band), together with all it´s accessoires:
– the SV500 basic equipment with the black high-dose gamma probe inside (which can also be used as an external probe and which allows measuring of dose rates even until deadly ranges of 1000 rad/h (approx. 1000 R/h)
– a external beta/gamma low/high-dose probe, which can measure combined beta/gamma – or just gamma radiation by easily turning the shielding around the probe
– the probe-connection cable to connect both the gamma and the beta/gamma-probe with the SV500
– a adaptor cable to supply your SV500 with energy over the cigarette lighter of your car (in case of empty batteries)
– a little speaker, with which you can make your readings also acoustically noticable
– a probe-wedge for fastening one of the probes onto a “walking stick”, long pipe, broom etc.
The self-explaining SV500 has six different, switchable ranges, which take off all (live)important ranges:
0 – 5 mrad/h (mrad/h = approx. mR/h), or 0 – 2,000 cpm (2 kcpm)
0 – 50 mrad/h, or 0 – 20,000 cpm (20 kcpm)
0 – 500 mrad/h
0 – 5 rad/h
0 – 50 rad/h
0 – 1000 rad/h
The first range is so sensitive, that you´re even be able to detect the normal background-radiation of approx. 20 cpm !!

This instrument is a dosimeter that gauges the dangerous kinds of radiation: beta, gamma, röntgen radiation and fast neutrons. It signals with a beeper when 0,5 Röntgen of received radioactive radiation (of all kinds) has been exceeded. The beeper can be reset with a switch on the side of the dosimeter. Because 0.5 Röntgen is a relatively low and a not really dangerous amount of radioactive radiation for humans this alarm dosimeter will excellently serve as a personal early warning system for radioactive radiation. The housing has been made of red/brown bakelite; inside are a Geiger-Müller tube, a lot of electronic components and a beeper. It is 12 centimeters (almost 5 inches) high so it is small enough to fit in your pocket. It has been manufactured by Total between 1960 and 1975 most likely in the USA. On the aluminum sheet sticker has been printed a.o.: AUTOMATIC ALARM DOSIMETER 0,5 R. – MONITOR PTW – TOTAL 6119 NO. 7052
Soviet Geiger Counter “BEREG-IRI1″

This is the Soviet Geiger Counter (Dosimeter) called “BEREG-IRI1”. It was made in USSR(Estonia) in 1990. This Geiger Counter is the indicator of the power of an exposure’s dose. The size of this indicator is 5.6×2.6×1.2 inches. There is an instruction in Russian for it.

This is the Russian compact everyday Geiger Counter(Dosimeter) called “Sintex”. It was made in 1993. The level of radiation for measuring by this Geiger Counter is 0.01-9.99 mk/ch.
Dosimeter Graetz GAMMATEST 1

Measurement principle: Geiger Mueller with energy filter
4 alarm values: 25 µSv/h, 50 µSv/h, 1 mSv/h, 10 mSv/h
Energy range: 48 keV – 2 MeV
Overload capacity: > 10 Sv/h
Electronic Radiation Dose Meter

Electronic Radiation Dose Meter made by Harwell. Used throughout nuclear industry and Atomic Weapons Establishment. LCD dispaly reading on top in microsieverts / hour. Built in Alarm set at 20 microsieverts / hour. Type number is 975002-1.
British Army Radiation Dosimeter & Charging Unit

Model STEPHAN Type 1548 is a high quality Dosimeter Charger self-contained desk unit plus Dosimeter for reading low levels of Radiation, 1.5 D cell battery operated instrument capable of charging any self-reading pencil dosimeter. Assures grounding of the dosimeter charging pin and removal of the residual charge, illuminates it for reading dosimeters. The zeroing knob has a push rod in its center that permits reading of the dosimeter without removing it from the charging contact pedestal. The dosimeter circuit is powered by a 1.5 volt torch battery. The push rod is actually a two-position switch. Comes complete with a pencil /pen shaped dosimeter.
British Army Radiation Dosimeter QF.4 Mark 3

Cold War period Civil Defence issue radiation dosimeter. Range 0 – 150 rems. These devices were issued to Civil Defence personnel to measure personal radiation dose rates after a nuclear strike. When held up to the light the reading scale can been seen. This item is in excellent unissued condition (still waiting for WWIII).
Radiological Dosimeter Charger CD V-750 by Bendix Corp

Radiological Dosimeter CD V-742 by Bendix Corp

This is a CD V-742 pocket dosimeter. It is used to measure levels of gamma radiation. The meter measures on a scale of 0-200R.
Radiological Dosimeters CD V-742 by The LANDSVERK ELECTROMETER CO

For more than a quarter of a century, Dosimeter has been a leader in the development, manufacture and distribution of radiation detection equipment. THESE ARE PERSONAL UNITS made to carry in your pocket to determine when maximum exposure has been reached. A radiation dosimeter is a pen-like device that measures the cumulative dose of radiation received by the device. It is usually clipped to one’s clothing to measure one’s actual exposure to radiation. Magnifying lenses (a low-power microscope) and an illumination lens allow one to directly read the dose by aiming the illumination lens at a light source and looking into the device. For personal use, this is the most useful device to measure radiation, because biological damage from radiation is cumulative.

Rare Set of Yugoslavian/Serb Army Issue Dosimeter Set and Carrying Box. This set consists of 12 dosimeters and one dosimeter reader housed in a waterproof plastic carrying box with an attached shoulder strap. The dosimeters are designed to be clipped onto clothing and equipment. They contain a glass vial with a “liquid” inside. This I think changes colour when exposted to radiation. The colour of the vial depends on the amount of radiation exposed to. Each of the dosimeters has a differnet number on the top representing the dosage of radiation each dosimeter is designed to absorb. The dosimeter reader is made from plastic and comes in a telescopic three pieces. The dosimeter is uncapped and inserted in one end of the reader – the user then looks through the other end and turns a dail until a matching colour is reached. He then reads the radiation dosage on a top dial to see how much the wearer has been exposed to! Compared to UK and NATO dosimeters it is a strange method of measuring radiation! There are instructions included but these are printed in Serbian, however there are pictures and these tell a thousand stories!!

Institut “Rudjer Boskovic” – Zagreb

Dosimeter FH39 R, 0 – 200 Milliröntgen, 10 keV – 3 MeV (not yet received)

Dosimeter FH39 U, 0 – 2 mSv, 50 keV – 3 MeV
Direct Reading Quartz Fibre Dosimeter Gamma / X-Ray

Direct Reading Quartz Fibre Dosimeter Gamma / X-Ray 0 – 200 Centigrays with Pocket Clip, 120mm x 17mm Dia, The direct reading dosimeter is a rugged instrument, which measures accumulated quantities of gamma and x-ray radiation. Applications include personal and environmental monitoring. The low energy feature has hospital applications including fluoroscopy, portable radiography and radiography. This pocket size instrument is lightweight, and has a sturdy clip to attach to an individual ‘s pocket.

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Living with Radiation: The First Hundred Years

In the century since radioactivity was discovered, radioactive substances have been used extensively for a number of applications. Especially in the early part of the 20th century, and to a lesser extent today, a number of commonly available products have been radioactive. These include:
* luminous watch dials (radium and tritium)
* orange ceramicware (notably Fiestaware from the 40s and 50s; uranium oxide)
* smoke detectors (americium 241; in current use)
* gas camping lantern mantles (thorium; some manufacturers no longer use this)
* camera lenses (thorium)
* static eliminators for film and records (polonium 210)
* welding rods and arc lamps (thorium)
* vacuum tubes (thorium was used to increase electron emission)
A fascinating look at the proliferation of uses of radioactive materials in the last century can be found in the book “Living with Radiation: The First Hundred Years” by Paul Frame and William Kolb. It tells the story of the use of radioactive materials in consumer and commercial products in the century since radioactivity was discovered. Second edition: copyright William M. Kolb and Paul Frame, 2000. 256 pages, numerous photographs.
Depleted Uranium – Half Fuel Pellet

The nuclear fuel is slightly enriched uranium (2%) in the form of uranium dioxide. This is a chemically-stable and heat-resistant ceramic material. It is prepared in powdered form, pressed into small, 11 5 mm diameter and 15 mm long pellets and sintered in the presence of a binder. The pellet shape is adapted to an intensive, high-temperature operating mode. For example, the pellets have hemispherical indentations, in order to reduce the fuel column’s thermal expansion and thermo-mechanical interaction with the cladding. One uranium nuclear fuel pellet the size of the tip of a little finger is equivalent to the energy provided by 1,780 pounds of coal; or 149 gallons of oil, as much oil as fits in three 50 gallon drums; or 17,000 cubic feet of natural gas. The energy is released inside the reactor through fission—the splitting of uranium atoms in a chain reaction. In the nuclear plant, the heat energy produced boils water into steam, which drives a turbine generator to produce electricity. Used nuclear fuel cannot explode and does not burn. Even when new, nuclear fuel is too weak to explode. Uranium mined from the ground is less than 1 percent fissionable and must be enriched to 4 percent in order to be used in a nuclear reactor. The uranium would have to be 20 to 90 percent enriched to be used as a weapon. Also, nuclear fuel does not burn when used in a nuclear reactor. In fact, it is not flammable.
With my Inspector Alert, I measure, at the surface of the pellet (α+β+γ) ≅ 201.0 μSv/h
Radioactive 14mm Vaseline Marbles + Jar

14mm (9/16″) yellow \ green Vaseline glass marbles in a nuke jar. The jar comes with 25 crackled and 25 non-crackled marbles. In normal light they seem to have a very high gloss and will have a slight glow in sun light but under black light (UV) they glow bright green. These will also register on a Geiger counter, though with a low reading of upto 200 CPM (50 CPM to 125CPM on average).
Radioactive Vaseline Marbles, Holders and Fragments

With my Inspector Alert, I measure, at the surface of the glass (α+β+γ) ≅ 5.67 μSv/h

With my Inspector Alert, I measure, at the surface of the glass (α+β+γ) ≅ 2.57 μSv/h

Made of clear glass, standing 5″ high, the bowl has a high amount of Uranium content and even glows well under normal sunlight.
With my Inspector Alert, I measure, at the top of the glass (α+β+γ) ≅ 11.51 μSv/h
Fiestaware Plates

The uranium-containing red glaze of these plates was used from 1936 to 1943. It was discontinued from 1944 to 1958 due to a shortage of uranium caused by demand from the U.S. Government to build reactors and bombs. It was produced again from 1959 to 1969. The uranium that was used during this last period was supposedly “de-enriched” by removal of the fissionable isotope, Uranium 235.
With my Inspector Alert, I measure (α+β+γ) ≅ 122.6 μSv/h
Fiestaware Vintage

Fiestaware vintage. The dishes include 2 vintage Fiesta red which has a minute amount of uranium and as well as the lead that was used in the old-style of glazing of the ware. Also included in this bid is a souvenir plate from the factory, which can be got only though touring the plant. Not yet received.
With my Inspector Alert, I measure (α+β+γ) ≅ 147.6 μSv/h

Since thorium is radioactive and produces a radioactive gas, radon-220, as one of its decay products, there are concerns about the safety of thorium mantles. Some nuclear safety agencies make recommendations about their use. A study in 1981 estimated that the dose from using a thorium mantle every weekend for a year would be 0.3-0.6 millirems, tiny in comparison to the normal annual dose of a few hundred millirems, although a person ingesting an entire mantle would receive a comparable dose of 200 mrem. However the radioactivity is a major concern for those people involved with the manufacture of mantles and with contamination of soil around some former factory sites. All of these issues have meant that alternatives, usually yttrium or sometimes zirconium, are used in some countries although they are either more expensive or less efficient.
With my Inspector Alert, I measure, at the surface (α+β+γ) ≅ 61.80 μSv/h

With my Inspector Alert, I measure, at the surface (α+β+γ) ≅ 80.70 μSv/h
10 Anchor 300 C.P Mantles

10 stk. Anchor Camping Gaz Mantles 300/400 C.P. Suitables for Coleman , German army lamp , Aida, Mewa, Golden Globe, Mannesmann, Anchor, Butterfly and other lanterns. It is old stock , and it is not radioaktiv free.
With my Inspector Alert, I measure, at the surface (α+β+γ) ≅ 139.60 μSv/h
GEOelectronics Spinthariscope

From my dear friend George, K0FF, this nice Alpha Radiaction Viewer.
Potassium Chloride

Potassium40(K40) is a naturally-occurring radionuclide. Wherever there is potassium, there is potassium40. If there is enough potassium, the K40 can be detectable with a simple survey instrument. Half-life: 1.28 x 109 years; Decay Mode: Beta decay (89.3%). The beta maximum energy is 1.31 MeV. Gamma Rays: 1461 keV (10.7%). Daily intake of potassium element: 3.3 grams. Amount of potassium element in body: 140 grams (1.5 pCi/g or 55 Bq/kg of body weight). Typical K40 activity in body: 0.1 μCi; This means that there are over 200,000 atoms of K40 that decay in the body each minute! Typical K40 activity in soil: 10 to 20 pCi/g. Dose from Potassium40: The dose to a typical member of the population is approximately 15-20 mrem/year due to the K40 in the body and 10 mrem/year due to the gamma rays emitted by K40 in the environment (primarily the soil). The human body maintains relatively tight homeostatic control over potassium levels. This means that the consumption of foods containing large amounts of potassium will not increase the body’s potassium content. As such, eating foods like bananas does not increase your annual radiation dose.
With my Inspector Alert, I measure (α+β+γ) ≅ 1.67 μSv/h
Fire Smoke Detectors (Am-241)

The vital ingredient of these household smoke detectors is a very small quantity (<35 kBq) of americium-241 (Am-241). This element was discovered in 1945 during the Manhattan Project in USA. The first sample of americium was produced by bombarding plutonium with neutrons in a nuclear reactor at the University of Chicago. Americium is a silvery metal, which tarnishes slowly in air and is soluble in acid. Its atomic number is 95. Its most stable isotope, Am-243, has a half-life of over 7500 years, although Am-241, with a half-life of 432 years, was the first isotope to be isolated. Americium oxide, AmO2, was first offered for sale by the US Atomic Energy Commission in 1962 and the price of US$ 1500 per gram has remained virtually unchanged since. One gram of americium oxide provides enough active material for more than 5000 household smoke detectors. Betalight Tritium Torch The Betalight is a self-illuminated unit with a wide range of uses is compact, robust and has an in-service life of over ten years. Illuminates without affecting night vision. A glass capsule internally phosphor-coated and filled with H3 tritium gas, activates the phosphor to emit light. With my Inspector Alert, I measure (β+γ) ≅ 8.43 μSv/h NiTE Tritium Glowrings and vials Nite Glowrings are laser sealed borosillicate glass vials which are internally coated with phosphor injected with gas which then reacts with the phosphor to create a cold energy which produces a low level light source with no filaments or heat dissipation and no risk of fire or explosion. They are unaffected by water, oil and most corrosive materials and require no external power source or exposure to light, remaining fail-safe and maintainance free. Nite Glowrings lights are also used in many other applications such as in the dials and hands of wrist watches, LCD display panels, level bubbles and directional signage. With my Inspector Alert, I measure (β+γ) ≅ 30.01 μSv/h UZI-001-R Protector, H3 TRITIUM DIVER Watch Movement: High Quality Swiss Component Movement. Crown: Screw Down. Case Diameter: 44mm. Water Resistance: 200 Meters (660 Feet). Crystal: Hardened Mineral Crystal. ILLUMINATION: 7 TRITIUM VIALS (SUPER BRIGHT!!! 25 milicuries of TRITIUM per vial – maximum allowed by US law). At 12: Two Red Vials. At 3, 6 ,9: Green Vials. H/M Hands: Green Vials. DATE Display at 4:30 TRASER H3 P6500 NAVIGATOR Military specs TRITIUM Watch Traser watches are the easiest in the world to read in low light conditions and even in total darkness. Thanks to its research, the Swiss Company MB-Microtec Ag has succeeded in manufacturing a self-activated light source that is 100 times brighter than any previously available. The light-emitting devices require no battery power or any other form of charging, and never need servicing or maintenance. Traser watches are equipped with a tritium light source. These tiny airtight vials are sealed under high pressure, and are resistant to water, oil and the most corrosive materials. A minute quantity of tritium lights up the dye. These merits have made traser-watches an absolute must in the emergency, safety and protection sectors as well as in the armed forces, but are also ideal for fans of adventure and sport. H3 TRASER are top quality Swiss watches, extremely robust and reliable. Chosen by the worlds elite military units, including the SAS, SBS, US Navy Seal Teams, H3 watches have proven themselves on active duty throughout the world. Vintage Alarm Clock 1940s Westclox SPUR Luminous WHITE 1940s Westclox Alarm clock – Model is called SPUR, luminous hands and Numbers. Works much like the Big Ben of the era – except SQUARE. The SPUR of this style design was made between 1938 and 1950. This one is likely late 1940’s. Loud Ticker and Loud alarm too. This is the rare white (Ivory) model. Most of these are Black. Dial numbers and hands still glow well. ORIGINAL CONDITION – not a restoration. Movement Cleaned and oiled. 4-3/4 x 4-3/4 inch case. Dial is Mint. Loud ticker. Loud Alarm With my Inspector Alert, I measure, at the surface of the dials (α+β+γ) ≅ 274.90 μSv/h Antique “Westclox-Pocket Ben” Pocket Watch Antique “Westclox – Pocket Ben” pocket watch. Runs good but may need cleaning. Dial is black. Markers were once luminous but no longer glow. Case is very good. Outside diameter is 49mm. With my Inspector Alert, I measure, at the surface of the glass (β+γ) ≅ 65.54 μSv/h VINTAGE COMPASS SOVIET RUSSIAN MILITARY HAND 1949 Vintage Soviet Russian military hand compass. Made in USSR in 1949 (the date of produce is printed at the bottom of the compass, visible at the separate photo). Material – brass and bakelite. Glass is real, not organic. Good condition, fully functional. Compass has a needle locking device. Diameter – 5 cm, thickness 1.5 cm. With my Inspector Alert, I measure at the surface of the glass (β+γ) ≅ 11.52 μSv/h VINTAGE COMPASS SOVIET RUSSIAN MILITARY HAND 1940s Vintage Soviet Russian military hand compass. Made in USSR in 1940-50s. Material – brass and bakelite. Glass is real, not organic. Best condition, fully functional. Compass has a needle locking device. Diameter – 5 cm, thickness 1.5 cm. Compass is slightly radioactive – 600 micro-Rontgens per hour because arrow and a part of scale is covered by phosphorus. With my Inspector Alert, I measure at the surface of the glass (β+γ) ≅ 23.45 μSv/h Silva Expedition 4, Type 4/54 NATO Compass Mil and Degree Markings – The main compass dial is marked in mils with degree markings on a secondary inner scale. Includes luminous points on needle, backplate and dial for night navigation. Tritium Night Illumination – Tritium gas within the luminous dial section improves night navigation backlighting.Normal luminosity works by absorbing light during the day then giving it out in darkness. Tritium gas works in the same way but is more efficient as the Tritium is slightly radioactive and is able to generate some portion of it’s own light. Full Size Base Plate – The large base plate is designed for intensive map use, with ergonomic design and built-in magnifier. Map Measuring Scales – Includes 1:25k, 1:50K, 1:63.36K, mm and inch measuring scales. With my Inspector Alert, I measure at the surface of the tritium vial (β+γ) ≅ 0.60 μSv/h Staticmaster anti static brush STATICMASTER ANTI STATIC BRISH WITH A VERY MILD POLONIUM RADIOACTIVE CELL WITCH NEUTRALIZES STATIC. THE CELL IS ABOUT 8 YEARS OLD BUT IN GREAT SHAPE COMES WITH MANUAL IN THE ORIGNAL BOX. Vintage Polonium 210 Radioactive Sparkplug WW II 1945 This is a genuine Firestone T30 Polonium spark plug. It has never been used and is therefore in as new condition. To keep it that way it has been expertly mounted inside a glass dome – approx 10 cm high – sitting atop a wax polished mahogany plinth with felt on the base (you could remove and use it if you need one for your late 1940’s Chevy…). This spark plug is now completely non-radioactive and perfectly safe to own and handle. It comes with a reproduction of the original packaging sheet (seen behind the spark plug). Vintage Firestone Polonium Spark Plug T30W Westinghouse JAN-1B24 Radio Tube NOS Signal Corp Pack A somewhat unusual old tube. The disc is solid copper, about 5/8″ thick, with a spark gap in the center window. Mint WWII condition. With my Inspector Alert, I measure 23.02 µSv/h at the solid copper disc and 8.30 µSv/h at the surface of the glass. Western Electric USN 1B29 Vacuum Tube Western Electric USN 1B29 U.S.Navy May 1945. With my Inspector Alert, I measure 66.36 µSv/h at the surface of the glass. NOS 1B35A / 6038 / CV3628 BOMAC MADE IN USA TUBE 1B35A / 6038 / CV3628 BOMAC MADE IN USA TUBE with Co-60. With my Inspector Alert, I measure (β+γ) ≅ 0.24 μSv/h NOS 5651 WAKR85 JAN RAYTHEON TUBE 5651WA JAN RAYTHEON TUBE with Kr-85. With my Inspector Alert, I measure, at the surface of the glass (β+γ) ≅ 0.25 μSv/h NOS Tung Sol JTL 5654 /6AK5W NOS Tung Sol JTL 5654 /6AK5W. USA made with date code (1965). Original mil stock in several manufacturers R-390A receivers of that vintage and later. Short gray plates (2 ribs) with top “D” getter.. With my Inspector Alert, I measure, at the surface of the glass (β+γ) ≅ 0.23 μSv/h 5 Western Electric 427A / 6141 100V VR Tube Audio Western Electric 6141 / 427A 3 element cold cathode VR tube, 100 v regulation, 165 v. anode breakdown. Provides regulation of 0.1% from 5 to 40 ma., versus 5% for commercial tubes. One of the finest Regulators ever manufactured. 9 pin gas filled voltage regulator tube with high current (40ma) capability (KR85 doping, 4.0 μCu). With my Inspector Alert, I measure, at the surface of the glass (β+γ): Number Date μSv/h CPS 1 12/60 1.27 6 2 09/59 8.53 44 3 12/57 17.01 88 4 09/59 6.02 31 5 12/57 10.22 52 Northern Electric NE 313C cold cathode gas triode tube Northern Electric NE 313C cold cathode gas triode tube. Made in the U.S. – NOS boxed – Dated Mar 1973. With my Inspector Alert, I measure, at the surface of the glass (β+γ) ≅ 0.35 μSv/h SYLVANIA CHS-721A HIGH VOLTAGE RADAR T/R PWR SWITCH CAP Sylvania Glass Capacitor. High voltage. Model CHS-721A (a military part number). Copper and glass construction. Printed on side is SC 5340 A, CHS-721A, Made in USA, Sylvania, E4. 1 1/2 x 3 inches. LOOKS LIKE NEW. In original box with cardboard inserts and model number sticker on side. Not yet received. CHERNOBYL FIREFIGHT SOVIET LIQUIDATOR USSR RUSSIA BADGE Legendary “LIQUIDATORS” insignia. The “LIQUIDATORS” is a collective name for Soviet firefighters, military, search & rescue, police, emergency situation ministry, civil defense personal and many other ordinary heroes – all participants in The Clean Up OPERATION of CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER STATION DISASTER. In Russian exactly it says: “The participant of liquidation of consequences of failure on an atomic power station” [Uchastnik Likvidatzii Posledstviy Avarii na AES]. Len.VO abbreviation on the top means Leningrad Military District. “CHERNOBYL” in Russian below. Soviet Red Star and Red Banner Communist Symbols and miniature of the Lenin Order Award. Well-made heavy brass, hand-enameled bright deep colors. CHERNOBIL NUCLEAR DISASTER LIQUIDATION PARTICIPANT The Chernobyl accident in 1986 was the result of a flawed reactor design that was operated with inadequately trained personnel and without proper regard for safety. The resulting steam explosion and fire released about five percent of the radioactive reactor core into the atmosphere and downwind. The April 1986 disaster at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in the Ukraine was the product of a flawed Soviet reactor design coupled with serious mistakes made by the plant operators in the context of a system where training was minimal. It was a direct consequence of Cold War isolation and the resulting lack of any safety culture. The accident destroyed the Chernobyl-4 reactor and killed 30 people, including 28 from radiation exposure. A further 209 on site were treated for acute radiation poisoning and among these, 134 cases were confirmed (all of whom recovered). Nobody off-site suffered from acute radiation effects. However, large areas of Belarus, Ukraine, Russia and beyond were contaminated in varying degrees. The Chernobyl disaster was a unique event and the only accident in the history of commercial nuclear power where radiation-related fatalities occurred. Subsequent studies in the Ukraine, Russia and Belarus were based on national registers of over 1 million people possibly affected by radiation! The power plant is located at 51°23’23″N, 30°5’58″E, near Pripyat, Ukraine, at the time part of the Soviet Union. CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR LIQUIDATOR FIREFIGHTER RUSSIAN MEDAL Legendary Soviet “LIQUIDATORS” commemorative award. Exact words in Russian on the reverse side of the medal: “IN THE MEMORY OF CHERNOBYL TRAGEDY 26 APRIL 1986″. Firefighter in action, Dangerous Radiation Warning Sign and Helicopter above Nuclear Power Station in the background are embossed on the obverse front side. Radioactive Hazard Logo Belly Bar Radioactive Hazard Logo Belly Bar, already installed. Don’t ask…

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